Thursday, January 12, 2012

Poultry Food

Poultry farming is a lucrative profitable business. But it may be a risky business if farmer has no conscientious. A large portion of success in the poultry farm industry depends on food formulation. For the proper growth and egg production, body maintenance required energy. In order to obtain desired rate of growth one must buy and provide full well food. Except this the farmer cannot run his business properly. All poultry keeper’s duty is to sell fresh and healthy birds and quality full egg to get maximum returns in relation to feeding and other costs.
For life, growth, production and reproduction in all classes of poultry some nutrients are essentials. These essential nutrients, most of these provided by nature, come to us in the form of pasture, grains  and seeds, bugs and insects, sunshine, gravel etc.
Water: It is an universal truth that animal cannot live except water. Though can live longer without food. Similarly, birds cannot live without water. Lack of enough supply of pure water may causes different problems. It hinders the growth of young poultry and also causes early moulting in the laying flock and low egg production.
Protein: The most costly feeding for chicken material is protein for poultry. But it is one of the materials that help to bring profitable results if properly used. The animals protein means that comes from animals sources such as meat, meat meal, milk, liver etc is very much helpful for increasing growth and egg production, than vegetables protein.  Besides, excess protein has a negative effect on poultry of any age.
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates is essential for a starved flock. These materials are found in grains and grainy products. These materials provide energy.
Fats: Generally fats are found in all food materials. But an excess rate of fate that comes from fish oil or meat and fish products may causes digestive problem and lead to various chicken disease.
Minerals: Calcium carbonate that is present in vitamin D helps to form most of the egg shell. The major part of the bone is made by calcium and phosphorous. But the excess amount of phosphorous lead to crooked bones and slipped tendons in chickens and poultry. Salt is also a reliable source of essential minerals. Small amounts of certain highly important minerals are found in green food.
Vitamins: Any vitamin deficiencies in their rations hinders the naturally growth of young poultry. The term vitamins describe a variety of essential nutrients that are differ from one another. Their activities are different.
  • Vitamin A that comes from green food, yellow corn and fish oils is essential to protest s against colds and infections.
  • Vitamin D is aids in preventing leg weakness and rickets that is found in synthetic products and in marine fish.
  • Vitamin B complex2 which originates from milk, green food, liver, synthetic riboflavin that helps to increase the growth of poultry and chickens. It also helps to prevents curled-toe paralysis in young chickens.
Wheat:  One of the best grains for poultry feeding is wheat. For this reason a proportions of wheat should be included in poultry food ration. In the seasons of wheat shrunken, this is cut and feed in mashes and less in the scratch food. Besides, in the spring wheat may be used.
Barley: Barley can work as part of the scratch food and in rolled, crushed. Generally it is not delicious like wheat and oats. When oats and wheat aren’t found or in poor quality, barley may be a fair or good to food with a good result.
Corn: Corn can be a pleasing   grain that can be feed whole, cracked or ground. Ripe corn can be feed to the hens but shelled corn should be feed other grains as scratch food.
Millet: Millet has good advantages. It can be used in growing, laying and fattening ration. Millet may save a big portion of whole grain food.

Rye: Like wheat, oats and barley, rye is not so palatable. It should feed in small amount as a scratch food with two or more of the other grains. Its large quantities may cause of digestive disorder.
Flax:  For the high protein of poultry flex is suitable.  Its small amount can be used in the   whole or ground in mashes.
By products of grain: By products of grain has a great healthy value for the poultry feeding. Especially it is found in the shop where poultry food are sold. It price is comparably higher than any other food. It is fed only specific purpose.
Skim milk and butter milk:  Among the all classes of poultry feeding skim and butter milk are very useful for the all kinds of poultry especially for the fattening birds, young chickens and laying hens. To get high hatching quality in eggs, this milk plays a vital role. Undoubtedly it is a reliable source of protein.
Balancers and Concentrates: For the poultry, concentrates and balancers are special supplement which is prepared by feeding companies. They are basically feed with home grown chopped grains.
Fish oil: Fish oil is dependable source of vitamins A and D. Mainly it is used in chicken food and laying chicken food. It is more essential when green pasture and sunlight is inadequate.
Growing chickens food:
To rear young chicken, a diet that is rich in protein and contain balanced mineral is urgent. For one chicken that is about six weeks age, two pounds of chicken starter dry mash can be feed. Besides,   cheaper ration with the increasing amounts of whole grain may be used to rear to maturity. A farmer should always concentrate about diet to promote rapid growth of chickens.
To draw more benefit, one can mix starter at home. For this plan one should bye 200 pounds of commercial starter mash for each 100 chickens. In this case one should choose a brand which is blistering and should avoid the less tasty ground mixtures. In a cool dry place it should be placed and provide fresh food daily.
Farmer will start feeding when the chickens want to eat at its early age and dry mash should provide with clean cardboard. After the two or three days, give the dry mash with self feeders when all the chicks can eat.
A farmer must ensure constant supply of fresh water and separate all the hard insoluble grit from the food by keeping the food in pans or hoppers. Besides, a little bit cracked wheat should be added with dry mash at the age of three or four weeks.

Chicken Starter No.1
                                                                lbs.                      lbs.
Coursely Ground Wheat                       30.0                     25.0
Coursely Ground Oat Grouts               18.0                      10.0
Medium Ground Barley                        15.0                      10.0
Finely Ground oats                               10.0                      10.0
Wheat Bran                                            5.0                        5.0
Meat meal (60% protein)                      5.0                        10.0
Fish meal (67% protein)                       5.0                        10.0
Milk powder                                           3.0                         4.0
Alfalfa Leaf Meal                                   5.0                         7.0
Linseed Oil Cake Meal                        1.5                          1.5
Fine Oyster Shell or Limestone          1.5                          1.5
Fine Iodized Salt                                   0.5                          0.5
Fish Oil (200 D)                                    0.5                          1.0
Total:--                                                   100.0                      100.0

Chick Starter No. 2
Suitable if chicks will have good pasture at 2 or 3 weeks of age
Coursely Ground Wheat    40 lbs.    Milk to drink
Oat Chop (sift out coarse hulls)    25 lbs.   
Barley Chop (sift out coarse hulls)    25 lbs.    Alfalfa or Clover chaff or other green feed, until chicks are on pasture
Meat Meal (60% Protein)    10 lbs.   
Fine Iodized Salt    ½ lb.    Fine Gravel and Oyster Shell in separate pans or hoppers
Fish Oil (200 D)    ½ lb

Growing rations : 
When chicks reach at the age of five to six weeks, Gradually cheaper mixture and coarser e.g ½ starter mashes and ½ growing mash can be given.     
                                                    Growing Mash (in self-feeders)
                        Ground wheat                100 lbs.
                        Ground Barley               100lbs.  ( Oyster shell and gra-
                        Ground Oats                  75 lbs.  vel, or limetone grit, in   
                        Meat Meal                     25 lbs.   separate pans or
                        Fine Salt                         3lbs.     feeders)
Rations for laying hens :
If you want to get a large profit from egg, you have to take a considerate plan for your hen ration from early of year.  Usually laying hens need some form of protein supplement in addition to other food. Besides minerals and vitamins can take a significant role to produce desired amount of eggs. Most of the farmers say that in winter season balance diet is essential for poultry. If success of poultry farm depends upon egg, farmers must give equal amount of food in winter and summer season. Besides, all these food a farmer must provide other foods that are practically helpful for laying hen like  wheat , coarse grains, clover hey and all time provide sufficient clean and fresh drinking water.